Optimum blood sugar and blood pressure control is the most important therapeutic intervention to avoid complications of diabetes, since diabetic retinopathy cannot be cured at the present time. Nevertheless, an improvement or at least a stop of the disease can often be achieved through various treatment options and good control of the diabetes.
Special drugs can either inhibit the swelling of the retina or the growth of blood vessels. These are applied directly into the vitreous cavity (IVOM, intravitreal surgical drug application).
Timely treatment of the retina with panretinal laser photocoagulation is the therapy of choice. However, this mostly painless treatment has to be repeated in many cases. This can prevent the disease from progressing and prevent severe visual impairment in 50% of cases.
If the disease progresses despite laser treatments, vitrectomy (surgical removal of the vitreous body) and retinal surgery are another way of preventing blindness.